1、fixed-action pattern

The term fixed action pattern (FAP), or modal action pattern, is sometimes used in ethology to denote an instinctive behavioral sequence that is relatively invariant within the species and almost inevitably runs to completion.

a trigger making people say yes



support points

4、comparison and contract

picture or lifestyle

triple digit decline of VS after switching models from using normal shape people

aspirational view of the brand

5、Loss leader principle

Retail,fast consuming

– a product sold at a loss to attract customers to get into the shopping environment such as supermarket and website

a product sold at a loss to make customers spend more money on accessories, eg, printers

6、most costly first principle

fashion, real estate,automobile

7、 reciprocity

giving you something like a flower and asking for donation by bonding you

sephora free sample and make-up service

CRM(customer relationship management)

messaging cadence: How often send communication, what are we doing to say/do

loyalty card, buy 10 get 1 free


we don’t like to think too much – we know what we are going to get

eg, zappos, starbucks

brand is a promise

9、social prove

associating brand with the trend before it happen

craft beer,7yrs ago,

people who enter this market at the end pay the price


a、buy something for someone they like

CRM—messaging codence

social media

responding in commends

“LIKES” in FB, yelp

Loyalty cards—Airlines

b、Physical Attractiveness

psychological that we tend trust people who are better looking

c. similarity

ethic advertising black, asian people


11、C and association

borrowed equity


sport figures

12、authority figure


Harley Davison 1930s 二战时候的摩托车

brand is not lying to you

doesn’t try to hard to market

we make a good product that is enough


limited time

USP(unique selling proposition)unique selling proposition

RTB (reasons to believe)Logical and emotional

Jingles are not used any more


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